But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in 1500. Now occurred the first of those ugly domestic tragedies for which the house of Borgia remained famous. Alexander VI was a pope who lived during the 15 th century, when Italy was experiencing the Renaissance. Cesare was preparing for another expedition into central Italy in July 1503, when, in the midst of all these projects and negotiations, both he and his father were taken ill with fever. Alexander VI – AKA Rodrigo Borja (Borgia) – was Pope from 1492 until his death in 1503. Charles VIII of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander VI drew him to his side and authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, without mentioning Naples. The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offense; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property. Pope Alexander VI (1431–1503). 844 likes. Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), Pope between 1492 - 1503. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) was, it is almost universally agreed, the nadir of the papacy. While still a teenager, Alexander was granted a title and income from the Roman Catholic Church by his uncle Alonso (later Pope Calixtus III). Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Alexander_VI&oldid=1018667, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Attempts to whitewash Alexander’s private conduct have proved abortive. Alexander VI openly used the church to advance his family’s fortunes, and his tenure as pope is widely seen as one of the sparks that ignited the Reformation. He was reputed to have committed his first murder at the age of twelve.[1]. Hulton Archive / Getty Images. Its tongue had swollen and jammed the late Pope's mouth open. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Sultan's brother, a hostage, had actually been one of his court favorites. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defence, but his position was most insecure, and the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles. Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) (Spanish: Alejandro VI, Catalan: Alexandre VI), born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia) was Pope from 1492 to 1503. He is one of the most controversial figures in the history of papacy. After a short stay, the body was removed altogether from the crypts of Saint Peter's and finally installed in another less well known church. Such was Alexander VI's unpopularity that the priests of St. Peter's Basilica refused to accept the body for burial until forced to do so by papal staff. On April 8th, 1455, shortly after being made a cardinal, Alfons … Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503) created 43 new cardinals in 9 consistories: Juan de Borja Lanzol (Llançol) de Romaní, el mayor 31 August 1492. The Banquet of Chestnuts (or Ballet of Chestnuts) was a fête in Rome, and particularly a supper purportedly held in the Papal Palace by former Cardinal Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI on 30 October 1501. He named his nephew, Rodrigo Borgia, cardinal in 1456. Alexander VI had four children by his mistress (Vannozza dei Cattani), three sons and a daughter: Giovanni (1474), Cesare, Goffredo (or Giuffre) and Lucrezia Borgia. Horoscope and astrology data of Pope Alexander VI born on 31 December 1430 Jul.Cal. Try Prime Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Basket He took the name of Alexander VI in honor of the ancient emperor Alexander the Great. He took Borja as his sur Bishop of Rome: Portrait by Giovanni Battista Gaulli. [2] John Burchard, the conclave's Master of Ceremonies and a leading figure of the Papal Household under several Popes, recorded in his diary that the 1492 conclave was a particularly expensive campaign. Cesare, then a youth of seventeen and a student at Pisa, was made archbishop of Valencia, Giovanni received a cardinal's hat in addition to the dukedom of Gandia. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. AKA Rodrigo de Borja. He proclaimed the year 1500 a Holy Year of Jubilee and authorized its celebration with great pomp. Cath. Biography Early life. By a Roman noblewoman, Vannozza Catanei, he had four subsequently legitimized offspring—Juan, Cesare, Jofré, and Lucrezia—whose complicated careers troubled his pontificate. He is one of the most controversial figures in the history of papacy. An example of the extreme levels of corruption and immorality then present in the papacy was the Banquet of Chestnuts, also known as the Joust of the Whores, an episode famous in the history of pornography. Alexander VI was an extremely intelligent man that enjoyed luxury and excess in all aspects of his life. But while a crusade was talked of, the real object was central Italy, and in the autumn, Cesare, favored by France and Venice, set forth with 10,000 men to complete his interrupted enterprise. He was born at Xàtiva, València, Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llançol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Pope Calixtus III (1455 –1458) on April 8, 1455. (Note on numbering: Pope Alexander V is now considered an anti-pope. He also promoted the evangelization of the New World. As a patron of the arts, Alexander erected a centre for the University of Rome, restored the Castel Sant’Angelo, built the monumental mansion of the Apostolic Chancery, embellished the Vatican palaces, and persuaded Michelangelo to draw plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica. This and other related bulls are known collectively as the Bulls of Donation. At Milan, Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) ruled, nominally as regent for the youthful duke Gian Galeazzo, but really with a view to making himself master of the state. 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